Thus, you can construct two different emotions from the same physiological sensations. One of the factors that has been studied more within these theories is the cognitive valuation of the emotion, that is to say the meaning that we give to the events. (See also the translation by Stephen of Antioch, V.38, p. When the emotion is placed such that it lines up with more than one value for an appraisal component (e.g., anger can be uncertain or certain), any of those values can be assigned for that emotion. He also believed in what we might casually refer to as a gut feeling—that we can experience an instantaneous and unexplainable like or dislike for someone or something (Zajonc, 1980). Physiological theories suggest that responses within the body are responsible for emotions. The first emotion listed in each row (e.g., fear, anger, joy) is the basic emotion, the second is the same emotion except at a greater intensity (that is, terror, rage, ecstasy) (1980, 1984). The thesis of constructionism. In Randolph Nesse’s words, “The emotions are specialized modes of operation shaped by natural selection to adjust the physiological, psychological, and behavioral parameters of the organism in ways that increase its capacity and tendency to respond adaptively to the threats and opportunities characteristic of specific kinds of situations” (1990, p. 268). The cognitive appraisal theories also offer a more detailed analysis of the different types of appraisals involved in the emotion process. (2000). Cannon-Bard Theory 3. Affect programs are explained further in section 4. 88–89). The acquisition of emotions during adulthood. For example, an individual’s envy of someone who is successful (or his guilt over having cheated someone) are both emotions that have been prescribed by the individual’s society so that the individual will take the appropriate attitude towards success and cheating. It will help to begin by clarifying some terminology. The transitory social role imposes rules that dictate which response is appropriate for the situation. Feeling All the Feels: Crash Course Psychology #25. William James (1884) was the first to develop a somatic feedback theory, and recently James’ model has been revived and expanded by Antonio Damasio (1994, 2001) and Jesse Prinz (2004a, 2004b). Many of the theories, however, fall somewhere in between, agreeing about some features of emotion, while disagreeing about others. The #1 social media platform for MCAT advice. Were there marked differences in physiological arousal associated with each emotional state? Having this evaluative component in the process means that an emotion is not a simple and direct response to a stimulus. Averill, J. R. (1993). (2001). The mental representation of the activity in the body, (D), Damasio calls the feeling. Hans Selye was a Canadian researcher who subjected rats to various stressors such as very cold or hot temperatures and loud noises. According to Averill, “an emotion is a transitory social role (a socially constituted syndrome) that includes an individual’s appraisal of the situation and that is interpreted as a passion rather than as an action” (1980, p. 312). An individual labels both his response at a funeral and his response to his favorite baseball team losing as grief, even if the two responses have nothing in common. James describes it this way: “the bodily changes follow directly the perception of the exciting fact [that is, the emotion causing event], and … our feeling of the same changes as they occur is the emotion,” (1884, p. 189–90, italics and capitalization removed). In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.). The arrows point to the different values that each appraisal component can take. Cognitive determinants of emotions: A structural theory. This is one of the earliest formal theories of emotions, formed across 1884 and 1885 by William James and Carl Lange (and therefore sometimes known as the James-Lange theory). Ekman’s automatic appraisal mechanism and Robinson’s affective appraisals are both supposed to determine which emotion is generated. Nevertheless, experience it people did. We might feel angry when we are betrayed, fear when we are threatened, and surprised when something unexpected happens. Thus, in many cases emotions may be best understood as interactions between people, rather than simply as one individual’s response to a particular stimulus (Parkinson, 1996). And there are several cultures in which anger and sadness are not distinguished as separate, discrete emotions (Orley, 1970 [quoted in Russell, 1991]; Davitz, 1969; M. Z. Rosaldo, 1980; R. I. Rosaldo, 1984). The following are some of the examples that are often used to illustrate the variability of emotion terms. In particular, there are emotion words in other languages that do not correspond directly or even closely to emotion words in English. Embodied emotions. This in turn reflects the judgment theorists’ claim that in order to have an emotion the individual must judge (evaluate, acknowledge) that events are a certain way. In one sense, emotions are sophisticated and subtle, the epitome of what make us human. The MCAT (Medical College Admission Test) … As Robinson describes this part of her theory, “My suggestion is that there is a set of inbuilt affective appraisal mechanisms, which in more primitive species and in neonates are automatically attuned to particular stimuli, but which, as human beings learn and develop, can also take as input more complex stimuli, including complex ‘judgments’ or thoughts” (2004, p. 41). Moreover, emotions appear to serve an important function, which has led many to think that the certain emotions have been selected to deal with particular problems and challenges that organisms regularly encounter. Griffiths’ idea is that these emotions are basically the same as other traits that are studied and classified by evolutionary biology. Thus, the individual will take him or herself to be experiencing jealousy, even though the actual emotion process was the one specific to anger (2004, 2005). The James-Lange Theory The James-Lange theory proposes that an event or stimulus causes a physiological arousal without any interpretation or conscious thought, and you experience the resulting emotion only after you interpret the physical response. These transitory social roles and syndromes are generated by social norms and expectations, and so, by these means, social norms and expectations govern an individual’s emotions. This will generate a feeling more quickly and efficiently, although it may not feel the same as a genuine bodily response (1994, p. 155–56). The assumption is that most of us would show signs of physiological arousal if we were being dishonest with someone. Aldao and Dixon (2014) studied the relationship between overt emotional regulation strategies and psychopathology. Plutchik, R. (1984). Many theories have been developed from the social perspective, but one that has been particularly significant is James Averill’s, which will be reviewed in this section (1980, 1982, 1986). They researched how 218 undergraduate students reported their use of covert and overt strategies and their reported symptoms associated with selected mental disorders, and found that overt emotional regulation strategies were better predictors of psychopathology than covert strategies. In this case, the evidence from non-mammals indicates that this trait was not selected because it aids live birth, although it later became useful for this task. As Solomon says, “by ‘judgment’, I do not necessarily mean ‘deliberative judgment’ … One might call such judgments ‘spontaneous’ as long as ‘spontaneity’ isn’t confused with ‘passivity'” (1977, p. 46). Grief and a headhunter’s rage: On the cultural forces of emotions. The evolutionary approach focuses on the historical setting in which emotions developed. Given that individuals experience the emotions that they have terms for (and vice versa), the claim that follows from these findings is that people in different cultures have and experience different emotions. In this example the mental state represents danger. Another study examined the relationship between pregaming (the act of drinking heavily before a social event) and two emotion regulation strategies to understand how these might contribute to alcohol-related problems; results suggested a relationship but a complicated one (Pederson, 2016). Some brief examples to show how these ideas have been developed are also reviewed. The values are set outside of conscious awareness. Untangling the appraisal–emotion connection. But unlike the judgment theories, the cognitive appraisal theories do not rely on the resources of folk psychology (beliefs, judgments, and so forth). In J. Blacking (Ed.). This classification creates a psychological category, which Griffiths terms the affect program emotions: surprise, anger, fear, sadness, joy, and disgust. In some contexts, Nussbaum treats judgments and beliefs interchangeably and it is sometimes the case that a series of judgments constitute the emotion. According to Damasio, these feelings are crucial in helping us make decisions and choose our actions (see Damasio’s somatic marker hypothesis, 1994, 1996). The James–Lange theory of emotion asserts that emotions arise from physiological arousal: in essence, that the self-perception of changes in the body produce emotional experiences. One example that Harré uses to demonstrate this is an emotion that depended upon religious beliefs and the norms that develop around those beliefs in the Middle Ages. Some examples are: anger and disgust mixing to form contempt; fear and sadness mixing to form despair; and with regard to levels of intensity, annoyance is a milder form of anger, which is itself a milder form of rage. Understood as a process, it is useful to divide emotion into two parts. Evolutionary explanations of emotions. Claire Armon-Jones goes further and says that the purpose of the emotions is to reinforce society’s norms and values (1986b, see also 1985, 1986a). Table 2. The judgment theorist Martha Nussbaum is dismissive of the bodily changes, whereas the cognitive appraisal theorists (that is, the psychologists) hold that the bodily response is a legitimate part of the process and has to be included in any complete description of the emotions. Ekman’s model is composed of two mechanisms that directly interface with each other: an automatic appraisal mechanism and an affect programme. Every individual has beliefs, as well as goals, personal tendencies, and desires in place before the emotion causing event is encountered. Every individual who understands this syndrome may at different times have the following grief responses: shock, crying, refusing to cry (that is, keeping a stiff upper lip), declining to eat, neglecting basic responsibilities, and so on. Nussbaum has a similar, but more detailed, description of anger as the following set of beliefs: “that there has been some damage to me or to something or someone close to me; that the damage is not trivial but significant; that it was done by someone; that it was done willingly; that it would be right for the perpetrator of the damage to be punished” (2004, p. 188). (2004). Each emotion type takes the values that its placement in the chart indicates. Finally, cognitive theories argue that thoughts and other mental activity play an essential role in forming emotions. Related to Ekman’s notion of an elicitor, Griffiths suggests that this system includes a “biased learning mechanism,” which allows it to easily learn some things, but makes it difficult for it to learn others. Thus, William Lyons describes his theory, the causal-evaluative theory, as follows: the causal-evaluative theory gets its name from advocating that X is to be deemed an emotional state if and only if it is a physiologically abnormal state caused by the subject of that state’s evaluation of his or her situation. Some of them are compatible, for instance, an evolutionary theory and a theory that describes the emotion process can easily complement each other; Griffiths’ theory of the affect program emotions demonstrates that these two perspectives can be employed in a single theory. The third category of theories contains those that attempt to describe the emotion process itself. In short, content theories explain what motivation is, and process theories describe how motivation occurs. According to Paul Griffiths, some emotions should be identified and then classified in this way (1997, 2004). Cognitive appraisal theories are the cognitive theories that have been developed by psychologists. The somatic marker hypothesis and the possible functions of the prefrontal cortex. A consequence of this view is that without a bodily response there cannot be an emotion. An emotion is a response to a specific stimulus that can be internal, like a belief or a memory. In reality, the other person was a confederate of the researcher. (credit “snake”: modification of work by “tableatny”/Flickr; credit “face”: modification of work by Cory Zanker). One way to distinguish the judgments that are emotions from those that are not is to suggest (like Nussbaum) that the judgment must be based on a certain set of beliefs. Robinson, J. The attractiveness of this approach is easy to see. Emotion is a mode of behavior which is purposive, or has an intellectual content. We can be at the heights of joy or in the depths of despair. This article is organized around these three categories and will discuss the basic ideas that are associated with each. In theory such as Lyons’, the bodily response is considered part of the emotion process and the emotion is determined by the cognitive activity—the judgment or evaluation—that occurs (Lyons 1980, pp. Table 3. The way in which he describes this process is just as central to the non-cognitive theories as it is to his own: “the nervous system of every living thing is but a bundle of predispositions to react in particular ways upon the contact of particular features of the environment. However, he does acknowledge that the same behaviors are not found in all species. Appraisal theory: Overview, assumptions, varieties, controversies. In Griffiths’ theory, the other emotions belong to different categories—the higher-cognitive emotions and the socially constructed emotions—and in some cases a single vernacular term, for example, anger, will have instances that belong to different categories. And for our purposes, we're going to discuss four different theories of emotion. As an illustration of this, let us say that Bill’s brother-in-law has just offered to let him in on a risky, but possibly lucrative business venture. The first path is quick, while the second enables more processing about details of the stimulus. 62–63; see also Roseman and Smith, 2001, p. 6). The logic of emotion. Emotion is the result of the very long process of evolution and is adaptive to nature. Judging in this context is the mental ability that individuals use when they acknowledge a particular experience or the existence of a particular state of the world; what Martha Nussbaum calls “assent[ing] to an appearance” (2004, p. 191). The theories in the first group claim that the emotions were selected for in early hominids. Discusses the James-Lange, or discharge theory of the nature of emotion. Somatic feedback theories suggest that once the bodily response has been generated (that is, a change in heart rate, blood pressure, facial expression, and so forth), the mind registers these bodily activities, and this mental state (the one caused by the bodily changes) is the emotion. That being said, although the individual chooses the role, Averill stresses that the emotional responses are interpreted by the agent as passive responses to particular situations, not as active choices. This description is sufficient to begin an analysis of the emotions, although it does leave out some aspects of the process such as the subjective awareness of the emotion and behavior that is often part of the emotion response (for example, fighting, running away, hugging another person). These are some of the examples that Ekman offers: Disgust elicitors share the characteristic of being noxious rather than painful; … fear elicitors share the characteristic of portending harm or pain. Nevertheless, although answering this question is important for a complete understanding of the emotions, it does not greatly affect the theories mentioned here, which are largely based on what occurs in the early part of the emotion process. Evolutionary theorists tend to downplay the influence of thought and learning on emotion, although they acknowledge that both can have an effect. The empirical evidence that exists and continues to be collected is one topic that has not been discussed in this article. Brian Parkinson and his colleagues have developed a theory based upon these considerations (Parkinson, 1996, 1997; Parkinson, Fischer, & Manstead, 2005). According to the two-factor theory, proposed by Schachter and Singer, the stimulus leads to the arousal that is labeled using the cognition that leads to the emotion. With respect to the non-cognitive theories themselves, there are two different approaches. In her “exclusively non-cognitive” theory, Robinson claims that any cognitive processes that occur in an emotion-causing situation are in addition to the core process, which is non-cognitive. Moreover, this emotion was “the major spiritual failing to which those who should have been dutiful succumbed” and “to feel it at all was a sin” (p. 221). This section closes with a discussion of the ubiquitous nature of facial expressions of emotion and our abilities to recognize those expressions in others. Since all humans have emotions and most non-human animals display emotion-like responses, it is likely that emotions (or emotion-like behaviors) were present in a common ancestor. Drexel University The further question is whether there is a unique set of bodily changes for each emotion. When understood as a state (like being angry or afraid), an emotion is a type of mental state that interacts with other mental states and causes certain behaviors. Here we’ll focus on the main three theories of emotion that explain the connection between the body and mind. Richardson, R. C. (1996). For example, in Roseman’s model, anger and regret take the same values for all of the appraisals except for the agency component; for that appraisal, regret takes the value self-caused and anger takes other-caused. It is also similar to the theories developed by William James (1884) and, more recently, Jesse Prinz (2004a), which are discussed in the next section. Criteria for emotion-antecedent appraisal: A review. Researchers have developed several theories of how human emotions arise and are represented in the brain. However, a trait can enhance fitness without being an adaptation. Averill, J. R. (1986). In Plutchik’s theory, these adaptations are, in one sense, types of animal behaviors. According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, humans feel emotions and experience physiological reactions (sweating, trembling, muscle tension, etc.) The early part of the emotion process is the activity between the perception and the triggering of the bodily response (that is, the emotion response), and the later part of the emotion process is the bodily response: changes in heart rate, blood pressure, facial expression, skin conductivity, and so forth. Hope this helps, A Robinson also suggests that the non-cognitive process may be followed by cognitive activity that labels an emotion response in ways that reflect the individual’s thoughts and beliefs. Interpersonal factors are typically the main causes of emotion, and emotions lead people to engage in certain kinds of social encounter or withdraw from such interpersonal contact. As the psychologists Ira Roseman and Craig Smith point out, “Both individual and temporal variability in reaction to an event are difficult to explain with theories that claim that stimulus events directly cause emotional response” (2001, p. 4). Modification, adaptation, and original content. LeDoux also views some emotions as requiring no cognition: some emotions completely bypass contextual interpretation. Review the theories of emotion in the following Crash Course Psychology video. AER can be adaptive or maladaptive and has important health implications (Hopp, Troy, & Mauss, 2011). His band often explains psychological music in their songs. Elicitors can vary by culture, as well as from individual to individual. However, the cognitive theories all maintain that it is the cognitive activity that determines the specific emotion that is produced (that is, sadness, anger, fear, and so forth.) The automatic appraisal mechanism is able to detect certain stimuli, which Ekman calls elicitors. Scherer, K. R., Schorr, A., & Johnstone, T. The effects of divorce and separation on mental health in a national UK birth cohort. In R. Harré (Ed.). Ekman, P. (1977). Rosaldo, R. I. The second approach describes the non-cognitive process in a very similar way, but defends the idea that all emotions are non-cognitive. Robert Plutchik claims that there are eight basic emotions, each one is an adaptation, and all eight are found in all organisms (1980, 1984). For these cases, Armon-Jones suggests that the emotion has still been learned by the individual, just not in a way that is consistent with what the larger portion of the society would endorse. Three different ways in which the evolutionary position has been developed will be discussed in the following sections. Moods, on the other hand, are typically not about anything, and at least some of the time do not appear to be caused by a specific stimulus. The theories are the James-Lange theory, the Cannon-Bard theory, the Schacter-Singer theory, and the Lazarus theory. VI.110–114), the physicalaspects of the emotions were dealt with as slow or quick movements ofthe vital spirits towards the heart or away from it. In a particular situation, say a baseball game, a player may adopt a social role that includes pushing the umpire as an anger response. Emotions: A general psychoevolutionary theory. In this case, Prinz says that the bodily changes that occur in response to perceiving a snake can be explained as an adaptation. See Zajonc (1980, 1984) for another important defense of the non-cognitive position. Considering an emotion as a syndrome, the individual has a variety of choices for the emotion response. Richards, M., Hardy, R., & Wadsworth, M. (1997). Even if you do not enjoy speaking in public, you probably could manage to do it. Bill could have considered the situation more thoroughly, but acting on this kind of feeling is, according to Damasio, often the way in which actions are chosen. Physiological theories suggest that responses within the body are responsible for feelings.. There are definitely more than three theories of emotions. According to Ekman, this is a mechanism that “stores the patterns for these complex organized responses, and which when set off directs their occurrence” (1977, p. 57). His research into the neuroscience of emotion has demonstrated the amygdala’s primary role in fear (Cunha, Monfils, & LeDoux, 2010; LeDoux 1996, 2002). A syndrome is a collection of all of the appropriate responses of a particular emotion, any of which may at certain times constitute an emotion response, but none of which are essential or necessary for that emotion syndrome. Theories of emotion can be categorized in terms of the context within which the explanation is developed. (2001). (As noted in section one, Griffiths identifies this class of emotions, the affect programs, historically.). (2004b). The emotions that appear in humans are more complex than what are found in lower species, “but the basic functional patterns remain invariant in all animals, up to and including humans” (1980, p. 130). In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.). The social functions of emotion. The theories discussed in this section have varied in the importance that they place on the bodily changes that typically during the emotion process. The transitory social roles are useful for explaining how the emotion responses relate to the society as well as the specific social context. Cannon didn’t agree with several aspects of the James-Lange theory of emotion. The major theories of motivation can be grouped into three main categories: physiological, neurological, and cognitive. 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