These include furnace or tap slag, raker slag, synthetic or ladle slags. � ��� Gao, J. T., Li, S. Q., Zhang, Y. T., Zhang, Y.L., Chen, P. Y., and Shen, P., Process of Re-Resourcing of Converter Slag. The physical and chemical characteristics of steel slag were analyzed and then the research progress of steel slag utilization in agriculture as fertilizer introduced. In all steel integrated are using the basic oxygen process or in electric arc furnaces (EAF) for steel production. This process leads to a glassy, granular product that is then dried and ground into a fine powder. <> With the requirements of sustainable development in China, the utilization of steel slag has become a hot issue. Following processing and metal recovery, the nonmetallic products from the furnace, raker and ladle slags are used for different applications including as construction aggregate, in agriculture or reclamation of acidic lands (www.nationalslag.org). These hydroxides have water solubilities of 1.20 g/L and 0.009 g/L, respectively, compared to 0.014 g/L for CaCO3 and 0.013 g/L for MgCO3 (National Lime Association, 1990). Nippon KokanKk Corporation (NKK) in Japan has developed a process to produce eco-friendly slow release potassium silicate fertilizer from the slag which is generated during the desiliconisation process of hot metal at steel mill. However, the high price of slag disposal imposes the need develop new slag to applications. endobj Besides, the land filled with the waste materials has become a significant source of pollution of air, water and soil, and further adversely affects the human health, and the growth of plant and vegetation etc (Ramachandran, 1995). The main uses of Slag are in construction, water treatment, agriculture, cementitious applications. Its alkaline property neutralizes soil acidity. Steel slags have been utilized successfully as a construction material, due to their good technical properties. Figure 1: Flowchart of slag production in a modern steel plant Government of India, Ministry of Finance (Circular No 553/49/2000-CX New Delhi, the 18th October, 2000) has notified that LD slag can be used as soil conditioner after its crushing, washing and adding with rock phosphates etc. endobj Experiments have found that application of LD increased the soil pH linearly. Air-cooled blast furnace slag This slag hardens when it reacts with water, with a hydraulic property that provides increasing strength over time. Its alkaline property remedies soil acidity (Makelaa et al., 2012). The LD slag mainly consists of SiO2, CaO, Fe2O3, FeO, Al2O3, MgO, MnO, P2O5 (Motz et al., 2001). endobj 4 0 obj /Contents 20 0 R>> endstream NIPPON STEEL & SUMITOMO METAL TECHNICAL REPORT No. 26 0 obj The Ohio State University Agricultural Technical Institute, Wooster, OH. Click here to View table, Table 4: Presence of trace element composition (mg/kg) of steel slags endobj endobj stream This increase in soluble salt should be negligible in application rate of representative agronomic limes, particularly in humid regions and with well drained soils. Current assay assesses the effect of iron and steel industry´s slag, derived from stainless steel, and compares it to limestone as soil acidity corrective and silicon source in coffee plants. stream As a result of growing environmental awareness, iron and steel slag is highly regarded as a recycled material that can reduce impacts on the environment due … endobj The use of steelmaking slag as fertilisers and as liming agents A small amount of slag is used as fertiliser in agriculture and this use depends on the market situations. Steel slag also has been used as amendment for metal contaminated soils (Mench et al., 1994a). <> Babula, P., Adam, V., Opatrilova, R., Zehnalek, J., Havel, L., and Kizek, R.V., Uncommon heavy metals, metalloids and their plant toxicity: a review. endobj endstream 3 0 obj <> However, the current utilization rate of steel slag in China is only about 21%, which is far behind that of developed countries. Steel slag may be used as a land fill cover liner (Inga, 2010, Ref. Ramachandran, V., The treatment and minimization of waste. Especially if the content of P205 is above 5%, it can be used as phosphate fertilizer. 12.5 of Ca(OH)2. stream endobj endstream /Contents 22 0 R>> The experimental works were carried out using pulverized LD slag for growing different vegetables and crops like tomato, potato, onion, spinach and wheat in acidic soil (Maslehuddin et al., 2003). They are non-metallic rock-like materials which are produced together with the metallic products of these processes. The properties of slag greatly influence its use and thus had got varied applications. Basu, P., Alternative ironmaking technologies: an environmental impact analysis. endobj The Use of Ag-Slag is Time-Proven Ag-Slag has proven its value as an agricultural liming material since the 1920's in all types of crop production and landscaping. EOSC’97: 2. endobj Click here to View table, Table 2: Chemical composition and major phases of typical <> Steel slag will contain various concentrations of trace elements, depending on the type of steel produced and on the steel process used (Munn, 1998). x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Wp�W� The iron and steel slag used as aggregates for asphalt roads are iron and steel by-products. The remainder is either stored or used for landfilling. Powders of steel slag are also patented for treating wastewater, whereby environmental contamination due to the slags can be prevented and the cost for treating wastewater can be reduced (Oh et al., 2000). A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. /Contents 44 0 R>> SFS has been used successfully in the friction course of hot mix asphalt pavements, as well as in Superpave mix designs and stone matrix asphalt. Heavy metals are broadly distributed in the Earth’s crust and some of their chemical forms can be a potential risk to biosphere, in particular to the water life, because of their solubility. The possible problems associated with utilization of steelmaking slags are volume stability and leaching of heavy metals such as Cr and V. The high free CaO leads to hydration and causes cracking in structures (Reeves and Lu, 2000). 44 0 obj High-pressure oxygen is injected into the furnace with a lance. The phosphorus content in LD slag is too high to be reused in iron making and one-hundredth percent of phosphorus go to the metal phase. Slags are nonmetallic byproducts of many metallurgical operations and consist primarily of calcium, magnesium, and aluminum silicates in various combinations. endstream /Contents 46 0 R>> The rates of liming required are high and the use of limestone may not be economically feasible (Munn, 1998). Steel slags or iron slags are byproducts of steel or iron industries, which account for 15–20% of total steel production. Steel slags (SSs) are usually classified according to the type of furnace in which they are produced. Steel LD slag has been successfully used as a substitute for limestone to neutralize soil acidity in agricultural soils for many years, and research has shown slag use to be comparable to or superior to limestone in some cases. It has been studied that, three steel slags were as effective as limestone in neutralizing an eastern Ohio coal mine spoil. 24 0 obj Slag is principally a lime based material that absorbs the oxides and trace elements arising from refining of iron. endobj endobj � ��� Although the construction industry does use some slag as an aggregate, most is simply discarded. Steel slags are produced at steel melting shop during steel manufacturing. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �12Rp�W� x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1�Tp�W� Basics of steel production and types of steel slag. 7 0 obj It is important that slag application rates be based on the soil acid buffer test (www.nationalslag.org). Steel furnace slag typically forms a very angular, durable aggregate that makes it ideal for use in the transportation industry. 109 JULY 2015-132-respect to steelmaking slag, about 100 000 tons are used annually as a raw material for slag silicate fertilizer, byproduct lime fertilizer, slag phosphate fertilizer, and special fertilizers. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �14Wp�W� On one hand, studies based on the use of slag in agriculture will be considered, which treat the use of steel slags for amending acid soils and as source of important factors and growing agents (not only calcium and magnesium compounds, but also other elements such as silicon, providing important beneficial effects for some crops and increasing the plant yields) and its use as Fe source for reducing … fractions of the slag are used for improving soil quality in agriculture. � ��� LD steel slag as fertilizer in agriculture. 1Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India .2Department of Environment and Sustainability, CSIR- Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology-IMMT, Bhubaneswar, India . In developed countries such as Germany, USA, France and Japan, converter slag is used to produce siliceous fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and micronutrient fertilizer (Wu et al., 2005). endobj 14 0 obj Hawai steel slag has been utilized in agriculture as a liming material for improving acid soil or as Si source for paddy rice and sugar cane plants. endobj /Contents 28 0 R>> Date: 30 Jun, (2000). The advantage is that the premelted flux is more easily remelted than the raw flux. /Contents 18 0 R>> /Contents 32 0 R>> Today, iron and steel slag is used in many fields where its unique characteristics can be put to effective use. The acidity in the soil inhibits the full development of coffee culture. Steel slag can be used as a soil neutralizer for highly acidic soils in areas such as Eastern India; it’s use as a fertilizer has also been well-established Steel slag has a longer life and durability than natural aggregates when used as rail ballast, thus helping save maintenance costs Steel slag is by-product formed in the process of steel manufacturing. <> <> Basu, G. S., Sharma, R. P., and Dhilon, A.S., Solid waste management in steel plants challenges and opportunities. Full details of the specific properties and applications for each of the types of slag can be found on the pages as follows: ... Slag (BOS) Air-cooled High Alloy Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) and Stainless Steel Slag (AOD) Electric Arc Furnace Carbon Steel Slag (EAF) Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GBS) Ground Granulated … As a result of growing environmental awareness, iron and steel slag is highly regarded as a recycled material that can reduce impacts on the environment due to its resource-conservation and energy-saving effects. stream x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Tp�W� Through an in-depth study on steel slag, it is apparent that it has been widely used in various fields in recent years. Owing to its high Si content, the use of slag as silicate fertilizer is gaining demand. endobj Many studies have been carried out for chemical and mineralogical characteristics of LD slag. <> LD converter steel making slag is one of the important wastes in all integrated steel plant. LD slag also contains phosphorous in the form of P2O5. 40 0 obj Lopez Gomez, F. A., Aldecoa, R., Fernandez Prieto, Rodrigues, M. A., and Julia, M., Preparation of NPK fertilisers from ferrous-metallurgy. /Contents 26 0 R>> Use of steel slag in asphaltic concrete minimizes potential expansion and takes advantage of the positive features in giving high stability, stripping resistant asphalt mixes with excellent skid … <> Slag use … <> However, the high price of slag disposal imposes the need develop new slag to applications. <> x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Sp�W� In soil conditioning slags are efficient in soil neutralisation. Downloadable! Iron blast-furnace slag should not be confused with steel-furnace slag or other types of slag. “Porous asphalt” designed for noise reduction The steel industry produces not only metal, but also a by-products which has been successfully used in many construction or agriculture applications. endobj No-20) studied feasibility of Granulated Blast Furnace slag (GBFS) for production of high performance concrete. However, slag could be used to treat acid soils or acid mine drainage. (2004). Steel slag contains fertilizer components CaO, SiO2, and MgO. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �14Pp�W� Due to its positive technical characteristics, LD slag is used all over the world in road and railway construction and for engineering. At present, the amount of slag deposited in storage yard, leading to the occupation of farm land and serious pollution to the environment. The most common use is as an aggregate in the manufacture of asphalt. stream • Farmers use Ag-Slag for maximum yields of cultivated crops and pasture. � �T� The steel slag contains higher amount of iron and its physical stream Through proper quality control, the steel slags aggregates can reach a stronger bearing capacity; permanently stable if the requirements for the volume stability have been fulfilled, and do not influence the environment by leaching (Motz and Geiseler, 2001). The materials are used to maximise yields of cultivated crops and pasture, improve soil texture and neutralize high soil acidity. Goldring, D. C., and Juckes, L. M., Petrology and stability of LD slag. endobj 3. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �14Vp�W� Needs to be further investigated slag to applications a unique application for agriculture purposes needs to be further investigated Pinto! Of the slags use in the process of steel has asked that the premelted flux is easily... Use and thus had got varied applications have a certain soil pH with... ( Valipour et al., 2003 ): //dx.doi.org/10.12944/CWE.10.3.29 by ICP-AES and C-H-N-S analyser air and water be. Two ways acid soils or acid mine drainage pp: 81-94 ( 2002 ) in the locality! Studies have been carried out for chemical and mineralogical characteristics of steel slag for soil stabilization and conditioner! 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