The development of viral vectors has enabled very fast and very high levels of protein expression in plants (Thuenemann et al., 2013; Gleba et al., 2007; Yusibov et al., 2006). Unfortunately, commercial development of plant-derived vaccine products has been very slow, perhaps due to a very conservative pharmaceutical industry that is hesitant to try new technologies. Plant biotechnology has made great strides over the past decade and has now emerged from its genesis in research labs into the mainstream of commercial agriculture, with well over 50 Mha of transgenic crops grown in 2002. I really want to make the point that this is not true – and this has been shown by a study of the University Hohenheim. A. Dear Biology Aspirants, Here you can find the Lecture Notes in Biotechnology. However, Amazon area in all the countries where this very especial humid forest exist, has security problems, under nutrition and bad-nutrition problem, as well as poverty is increasing, specially in areas near the biggest cities of the Amazon. • Methods of Biotechnology • Gene Transfer: • Plasmids • Restriction Enzymes • Polymerase Chain Reaction • DNA Ligase and Cloning • The Accomplishment and Opportunities of Plant Biotechnology • Genetic Engineering: • Trans-genic Plant • Advantages and Disadvantages of … 02 hours) 2. Many Europeans compare their work with the development of “Frankenstein food”. Biotechnology is synonymous with genetic engineering because the genes of an organism are changed during the process and the DNA of the organism is recombined. While countries such as South Africa, Nigeria and Egypt have the capacity to generate transgenic plants, mechanisms to ensure that the plants can reach the end user i.e. Hence, in developing countries, controlling the use of genes and access to transgenic varieties will require the implementation of restrictive IP protection, such as strong laws related to patents and plant breeder’s rights, and the vigorous enforcement of these laws, as well as biosafety regulations. Plant biotechnology has been regarded as a priority area for technology transfer, because genetically modified food, feed, and fibre are of vital concern to the developing world (Ives and Bedford. The changing emphasis in target traits has been a key feature in the development of transgenic technology in potato, which has been at the forefront of progress in crop plants due to the relative ease of transformation of this species. Feel free to contact the Admin if you have any doubts or quires. Documents & Videos. Students preparing for higher studies or competitive exams can consult biology class 12 chapter 12 revision notes to … These have been made according to the specification and cover all the relevant topics in the syllabus for examination in May/June as well as … Plant biotechnology can reduce a number of undesirable food components, such as one of the major allergenic proteins in rice or the major allergens in peanut or soybeans. The Amazon Basin, is one of the richest areas in the world. Small European biotechnology companies and universities wishing to commercialise plant biotechnology are more vulnerable than the global agro-chemical sector in this regard, being geographically and financially constricted, and relying heavily on public confidence. The development and large-scale adoption of GM technology has not, however, been trouble-free due to both scientific and ethical issues. 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